“Breathes there the man, with soul so dead, / Who never to himself hath said, / This is my own, my native land! / Whose heart hath ne’er within him burn’d, / As home his footsteps he hath turn’d …” Sir Walter Scott
Native land means different things to different people. To some it’s a nation with well-defined borders, like France or Sweden; to others, it transcends borders, à la Ireland or Korea. For many, I think, native land invokes something more intimate and parochial: a patch of earth that, no matter where life takes us, stays synonymous with home. For me, that place is the Bronx of the 1950s and 60s, a lower-middle/middle-middle-class agglomeration of apartment houses, single-family homes and small businesses sprawled between Long Island Sound to the east and the Hudson River to the west, a so-called bedroom borough whose north-south subway lines transported its inhabitants to and from jobs in Manhattan.
Reeking of exhaust and incinerators, the Bronx was chockablock with pizzerias, German and Jewish delis, Irish bars; blessed with spacious parks, a world-class zoo and botanical garden; and possessed of the Ruthian diamond–the crown jewel of major league baseball–Yankee Stadium. The skyline looming to the south was the imperial city, a dream-big place, proximate yet far away. Ours was the workaday, no-illusion city, its concrete precincts filled with cops, firemen, pipefitters, clerks, mechanics, motormen, taxi drivers, teachers, housewives, shop owners, wire lathers, civil servants and union members, the everyday people who kept the place running.
Solid, stolid, often the butt of jokes (“The Bronx, no thonx” wrote Ogden Nash), the borough was a small-scale Yugoslavia: ethnic enclaves interspersed with areas in which, though physically mingled, groups lived psychically and culturally apart. Jews, by far the Bronx’s most numerous population, branched out from the Art Deco stem of the Grand Course. Highbridge, Kingsbridge and Woodlawn were heavily Irish. Fordham, presided over by the Jesuit Gothic of the eponymous university, was bordered to the west by the well-heeled Irish parish of St. Nicholas of Tolentine; to the southeast by Belmont, a tight- knit Italian village of modest apartment buildings and meticulously tended one- and two-family homes. The once Irish/Jewish South Bronx was rapidly filling with newly arrived Puerto Ricans and African Americans. The East Bronx was a trifecta of Jews, Irish and Italians.
We Bronx Irish defined ourselves as much by parishes as neighborhoods. I was from St. Raymond’s parish, in Parkchester, in the East Bronx. Despite all belonging to the genus of B.I.C. (Bronx Irish Catholic), we at St. Raymond Elementary School considered ourselves distinctly different from our counterparts in the cheek-by-jowl parish of St. Helena’s. A planned community of 12,000 apartments, Parkchester was created by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, which also financed construction of Stuyvesant Town in Manhattan. Parks and open spaces were strategically placed. The main means of transportation were subways and the extensive system of city-owned bus lines. But in prescient anticipation of a rapid increase in car ownership, there were multistoried garages and copious parking spaces.
The majority of Parkchester’s residents were Jews and Catholics (Irish in the main). The few Protestants were regarded with curiosity. Up until the 1960s, Metropolitan Life excluded African Americans from both Stuyvesant Town and Parkchester. This was of a piece with the intransigent residential segregation that prevailed (and still prevails) across large swathes of the city. Desperate to increase the supply of middle-class housing–at least for whites–New York’s progressive mayor, Fiorello LaGuardia, reluctantly went along. (Ironically, the oval at Parkchester’s center once contained the ballfield in which the Negro League’s Lincoln Giants played their home games.)
Parkchester was built on the site of the old Catholic Protectory, which was founded in 1863 by Archbishop John Hughes, the Ulster-born hierarch who established Fordham University, initiated the building of St. Patrick’s cathedral, and made the New York Irish into a political as well as religious constituency. The Protectory housed orphans and abandoned children, mostly Irish, whom the Children’s Aid Society had begun shipping west on “Orphan Trains” to be settled among God-fearing, Anglo-Saxon Protestants.
Bordering Parkchester, Morris Park to the west and Castle Hill to the east were heavily Italian. A step behind in terms of assimilation and economic advancement, Italians generally preferred houses with small gardens over apartments. Parochial schools brought us together. Friendships blossomed and so did fights. I remember the schoolyard of St. Raymond’s as an asphalt Serengeti where the weak were bullied and tough Irish battled it out with tough Italians. (Pugilistically inept, I did my best to be inconspicuous.) Sometimes the rivalries were humorous. One Italian carting company emblazoned on its garbage trucks “We Cater Irish Weddings.” When I heard talk of “intermarriage” it referred to Irish-Italian nuptials. It wasn’t until later that miscegenation escalated into ethnic meltdown and bred a new strain of Hiberno-Mediterranean offspring notable for their good looks.
Over the years, I’ve heard from Jewish Bronxites about suffering verbal harassment (“kikes,” “sheenies,” “Christ-killers”) and physical abuse from, as one friend put it, “Irish pogromists.” Without doubting their accounts, that wasn’t my experience. Through all my years of parochial school, I never heard anti-Semitic professions by teachers or clergy. We were told it was our sins that nailed Jesus to the cross. If either of my parents suspected we were cursing or bullying Jews, retribution would have been swift and severe. Yet I had no Jewish friends. We lived separately together. One thing shared by gentiles and Jews was a familiarity with Yiddish. To be a Bronxite was to schlepp and kibitz, and to understand the difference between a smuck and a mensch.
I had no acquaintance with Jewish girls, except one. We rode the 20 BX bus together, she to Walton Girls High School in Kingsbridge, me to all-male Manhattan Prep in Riverdale. I sat in the back with my school buddies, she in front with her classmates. The first time I saw her, I was smitten by her thin and graceful figure, clothes loose and flowing (the style was tight), thick, black curls (the fashion was long and straight), an early blossoming flower child. It was part of growing up in the Bronx to figure out, as quickly as possible, a person’s tribe. I identified her Jewishness in the same way, if she bothered to notice, she perceived my goyishness. We never spoke. And then, one September, she was gone, off to college I presumed. I spent months bereft. Recently, for the first time in 50 years, I rode a bus along the old route, and it all flooded back, my lonely-hearts Bronx tale, unbridgeable worlds in the same borough, on the same bus.
My first ancestors arrived in New York when Margaret and Michael Manning fled the Great Famine. Margaret Manning, their daughter and my paternal grandmother, was born in 1867, in the village of Fordham, at that time part of Westchester County. (The Bronx didn’t become a separate county until 1914.) My grandfather Patrick Quinn, born in Tipperary in 1859, arrived with his family in 1870. As a young man, he went west as a coal stoker on the railroad, became a labor organizer, and eventually returned and rose to the presidency of New York City’s Central Federated Union. He married Margaret Manning, a seamstress, in St. Brigid’s church, on the Lower East Side, in 1899. It was Patrick’s second marriage. After his first wife died in childbirth, he left his infant daughter with a sister and went off to Cuba for two years. It’s uncertain if he was actually married to his first wife. An aura of roguery hung about him.
Contra the notion of Irish obsession with ancestry, my family showed little interest in the past. My mother had an active disinterest, routinely tossing out documents and obfuscating or bowdlerizing the fate of relatives who fell victim to impoverishment or their own misbehaviors (or both). The primary focus of my parents and grandparents wasn’t on the Irish past but the American future, and their children’s role in it. My father recalled that as a boy on the Lower East Side he shared a room with his older brother in which they rarely stayed. My grandparents hosted relative after relative as they arrived from Ireland, until none were left to bring over. If my grandfather heard anyone sentimentalizing about the old country his instant riposte was, “If you miss it so much, why don’t you go back?” Romantic Ireland didn’t ring very convincingly in crowded tenement rooms.
Catherine Riordan of Blarney, County Cork, landed at Castle Garden in 1888. (It would be four years before Ellis Island opened and processed its first immigrant, Annie Moore, also of County Cork.) Though Catherine claimed to be 18, it’s more likely she was 15 or 16 and lied about her age so she could join her older sister as a domestic and begin sending remittances home to finance her siblings’ journeys. She stayed at maid’s work until she met James Murphy, a native-Irish speaker from Macroom, who worked as a mechanic at Yorkville’s Rupert Brewery. My mother, Viola Murphy, the last of their six children, was born on the top floor of a four-story walkup on 149th Street, in the Bronx.
Coming of age in the1920s, my parents belonged to the first truly modern generation. Electricity rolled back night and blazed the Great White Way. New appliances alleviated the burden of ancient drudgeries. Movies and radio revolutionized entertainment. Cars and airplanes shrank old barriers of distance. Credit and the installment plan made commonplace what were once luxuries. People’s expectations rose exponentially. Progress and prosperity were presumed, with America in the vanguard, and Jazz Age New York ahead of all.
Where none of my grandparents went beyond primary school, my parents graduated college. My father received a B.S. in civil engineering from Manhattan College and worked on the construction of the IND subway while attending Fordham Law School at night. My mother was a classics major at Mt. Saint Vincent. They met in 1928 at a parish St. Patrick’s Day dance in the Bronx. Beyond-expectation embodiments of their parents’ immigrant ambitions, they loved nightclubs, the theater–musicals, the Marx Brothers, Shakespeare–and reveled in the speakeasy hubbub in which my mother’s bartender brother was much admired for his skill as a mixologist.
The presumption that they escaped their ancestors’ world–a chronicle of unhappy endings that culminated in starvation and migration–was rocked by the Crash of ’29 and the Great Depression. My mother lost her small savings as a teacher when the Edgewater Savings Bank folded. Her immigrant father lost his life savings, the accumulation of forty years working in a brewery. Pensionless, he worked until until he died. My two aunts, one a teacher, the other a secretary, stayed unwed and at home to support my grandmother.
Though he had an engineering and law degree, my father struggled to find fulltime employment. He volunteered with the local Democratic Club. Edward J. Flynn, the formidable Fordham-educated leader (AKA “The Boss”) of the Bronx Democratic organization and a confidante of Governor Franklin Roosevelt, took a liking to him. Flynn sent my father to the 1932 convention to Chicago as part of a contingent that worked behind the scenes to keep the New York delegation in line for FDR. He campaigned hard for FDR, speaking around the city from the back of a flatbed truck. In 1936, he was elected to the State Assembly. A week after the election, eight years after they met, my parents were married.
My father spent the rest of his life in Bronx politics, serving in the assembly until 1944, then a term in the U.S. Congress (he was one of the two congressmen from New York who rode FDR’s funeral train to Hyde Park), and the rest of his career as a judge of the Municipal Court, chief judge of the City Court, and a justice of the State Supreme Court. A well-respected jurist and noted public speaker, he was at home in the Bronx, in the parish in which he grew up. A devout New Dealer haunted by memories of the Depression, he never owned a stock or bond, and encouraged my brother and me to seek the security of careers in the civil service.
His obituary in the New York Times states that his “associates described him as a witty and brilliant man who loved to sing Irish songs and tell Irish stories.” My father and mother were both fine singers and dancers. The songs were mainly from Broadway shows or the Great American Song Book, the dances foxtrots and waltzes, not reels and jigs. The “Irish songs” weren’t folk tunes but Irish-American favorites like “Harrigan,” “Galway Bay,” and their all-time favorite, “How Are Things in Glocca Morra?” (lyrics by Jewish songwriter, E.Y. Harberg). The stories my father excelled at telling–stories salted with theatrical mastery of dialects–rarely involved Ireland (when they did, they were ghost stories) and rose instead from his life amid the mishegas of New York politics.
I went to the same grammar school, high school and college as my father, all in the Bronx, all Catholic institutions. I took for granted that the Irish-American community my family existed in for over a century would remain as it was. The election of John F. Kennedy as president in 1960 felt like a capstone. Shortly before the election, Kennedy spoke at the Concourse Plaza, once the borough’s only top-of-the-line hotel—today it’s a nursing home–a Mickey Mantle homerun away from Yankee Stadium, around the corner from where my wife was raised. My father, running in his last election for the state Supreme Court, also spoke. Afterwards, Kennedy traveled up the Grand Course on the back of a convertible, a quaintly distant, pre-Dallas image. My friends and I stood in front of the Loew’s Paradise, a movie palace since stripped and defaced, and helped swell the frenzied delirium that greeted Kennedy as he mounted the platform in front of long-vanished Sachs Furniture and Krum’s Candy stores.
Permanence of any kind is the grandest of illusions. What was different about the Bronx was the velocity with which the illusion crumbled. The origins of the Bronx as one of the city’s five boroughs (the only one on the U.S. mainland) were obscure even to Bronxites. I heard passing mention among my elders of “annexation” and “consolidation,” but the hardedge, unremitting brick-on-brick streetscapes disguised its overnight transformation from pastoral to metropolitan and made it seem pretty much the same since the Dutch forcibly evicted the peaceable, innocent Lenapes.
The centrifugal swirl that memory insists descended suddenly, like a fast-moving storm, had been building for some time. The pharaonic schemes of nonpareil powerbroker Robert Moses carried traffic around and across the Bronx to Long island and New Jersey. The fund-starved, once-efficient public transit system creaked and sputtered. FHA mortgages spurred the upwardly mobile aspirations of would-be homeowners and at the same time maintained and abetted the legacy of residential apartheid that condemned minorities to decaying, substandard housing stock.
Economic change drove social change and cultural change, and was reinforced by it. Vatican II altered our unalterable church. Priests and nuns molted back into civilians. Parishioners moved away. Once-thriving parishes became enfeebled. Rock ‘n’ roll and the sexual revolution made the generation gap seem more a chasm. Drugs spread. Crime and fear of it escalated. The Grand Concourse grew gritty. The boring Bronx, synonym for low-rent bourgeois blah, descended into the burning Bronx, global synecdoche for urban ruin.
The future fled the Bronx. Friends moved away or never returned from college. Soon enough I followed, serving as a VISTA volunteer in Kansas City. Beckoned by the beautiful and new–everything the Bronx wasn’t–I felt the lure of California. It was then, for the first time, I thought about what I was leaving behind: the saga of the Atlantic passover from poverty and subservience to steerage and immigrant tenements; those who made it, those who didn’t, those whose names I knew, those I didn’t. In all my years in schools founded or largely staffed by Irish and Irish Americans, my only encounter with Irish history was in a course on Victorian Britain. The past was a blur. It was as if we emerged from the shadows and fully entered history when we came to the Bronx.
My threadbare connection to Michael Manning, my great-grandfather, was my father’s memory of him as an old, blind man, quiet and gentle, who never alluded to what led him to emigrate other than to say that he would never think about going back “until they hanged the last landlord.” That was all I knew about him, except for a line in the census–occupation: laborer–and the place of his death on January 10, 1910, 296 East 7th Street, a long-ago demolished tenement. I later learned the name Manning was an errant transcription of Mangan that, for whatever reason, stuck. The rest was silence.
When I returned to New York, the little research I did was lackadaisical, accidental, addled. So was my career. I worked as a high school teacher, Wall Street messenger, dishwasher, court officer, archivist, until I found my way to a graduate program at Fordham University. I served as a graduate assistant to the late Maurice O’Connell, a scholar of Irish history and the great-grandson of Daniel O’Connell, the Liberator, a towering figure in that history. I traveled to Ireland and studied there and, as comfortable as I felt, faced that it wasn’t home and I didn’t belong; that the break was final and irreversible; that caught on the hyphen between this small island to the east and the vast continent to the west, my native land was the interspace on America’s Atlantic ledge.
Driven by the blunt trauma of permanent underemployment as an academic, I stumbled into speechwriting with the thought of doing it for a year, which stretched into thirty, through two New York governors and five chairmen of Time Inc./Time Warner. The past kept nagging me. I toyed with attempting a history of the famine immigration to New York. In the time I could game or grift, I dipped into records and newspapers. I grew increasingly aware that the history I sought belonged to lives too unimportant to record, people who suffered history rather than recorded it, servants, laborers, anonymous poor, ordinary moments that weren’t written anywhere, the intricate tangle of individual existences shrunk to generalities, statistics, accidental mention, a census line.
Despairing of history, I turned to fiction. I began rising at 5:30 a.m., working for two hours before turning the page to nose-grinding, bread-winning labor. I read whatever I believed relevant, copied paragraphs from novels that I admired, scribbled the beginnings of the story I wanted to tell. I found characters who guided me, some imaginary, some like Stephen Foster and John Hughes, real. I listened as they mumbled, murmured, shouted, revealed themselves, led me places I didn’t know existed.
I researched, wrote, despaired, rewrote, deserted, returned, persisted across an entire decade. I discovered in fiction truths I didn’t in history. I grappled with the power of the past to bolt in place the unconscious exoskeleton that supported and shaped–sometimes misshaped–expectations and relationships far into the future. I came to grasp the human need to forget as well as remember. I learned that what goes unspoken, unacknowledged, has the greatest sway of all. Everything around me, parish, school, politics, religion, the Bronx I grew up in and carry with me, sprang from and contained what came before. The past never goes away, I realized, only unnoticed or denied.
My characters became my companions, comrades-in-arms, soulmates, a company of aspiring, compromised, lustful, decent, cowardly, ruthless, compassionate, befuddled human beings–Irish, African-Americans, old-stock New Yorkers–that I gathered under the rubric of a familiar prayer: “banished children of eve.” I felt a pang of emptiness when I finished the last page and let them go. Mixed in was a sense of a journey done: In T.S. Eliot’s words, “to arrive where we started and know the place for the first time.”